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    Firstly we need to look at the different junction types and how to recognize them. When you are going from a minor to a major road this is known as an Emerging Junction. If  you are going from a major road to a minor road this is an Approaching Junction.

    EMERGING  JUNCTIONS

    When we approach an emerging junction we use a system called M.S.P.S.L. this makes sure we do not forget to do anything and we do it in the correct order.

    M – Mirrors
    S – Signal
    P – Position
    S – Speed / Gears
    L – Look

    Mirrors

    When we see the junction we check the required mirrors depending on the direction of turn eg Right turn rear view/offside mirrors.

    Signal

    Next we signal in the direction we are planning to turn, if you do not do this nobody has any idea of what you are going to do.

    Position

    For a left turn we position the car in the normal driving position ie car door or about a metre,  but we must then follow the left curve of the road around the corner. For a right turn we position just left of the centre line.

    Speed / Gears

    As a guide if we are at an open junction we will probably reduce speed and stay in 2nd gear as we can see down the road. If we are at a closed junction then when you should use the brake to reduce speed, change into 1st or 2nd gear and bring the clutch to the biting point (not all the way up) this is called creeping, if you are clear to go bring the clutch up and add gas, if not, stop with the brake and put the clutch to the floor.At a CLOSED or STOP junction  you must STOP and go into 1st or 2nd Gear.

    Look

    It is important we look both ways at least twice before pulling out, think about Cars/Motorcycles overtaking on the other side of the road to the left. If you can’t see then creep forward slowly until you can.

    .

    APPROACHING JUNCTIONS

    When we are approaching a junction we use the same M.S.P.S.L. technique but in a slightly different way.

    Mirrors

    Check the mirrors required, eg Right turn rear view/offside mirrors.

    Signal

    Put on the correct signal

    Position

    For a left turn the normal driving position is used, for a right turn again position the car slightly left of the centre line. We also do not turn right until the right Front of Car lines up with the center line of the new road to avoid cutting the corner.

    Speed / Gear

    Normally reduce the speed to about 15/20 mph and then go to 2nd gear for the turn. You must bring the clutch back up fully or you will coast. If you can not go around to the right you can either drop into 1st gear after slight braking and creep or you can stop with your right Front of Car opposite the centre line until it is clear to go. It is wise to put your handbrake on if you have a long wait or Uphill starts.

    Cross Roads

    Crossroads are treated very similar to normal junctions, however you do need to understand priorities and a slightly different looking procedure.

    When we approach a crossroads we need to look at the road opposite for traffic so we Look Right,, Left, Forward,  this should be done twice and then continued until you are clear to go.

    Be aware of cyclists or other road users not following cross road priorities.

    Priority When you approach a crossroads from a minor road you will nearly always give way to the main road if you have give way lines in front of you, however you have to follow the rules of priority with the car opposite who also has to give way if  they have give way lines in front of them.The basic rule is that if you are crossing their path you give way to them and vice versa. When dealing with Unmarked Cross Roads no one has priority!


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